Actual Li-ion batteries
Today anode materials are made of a copper current collector, covered on both side by the active material mixed with a binder. The binder is usually PVDF, CMC or PAA he active material is usually graphite which energy capacity is 372 mAh/g. Graphite is either natural (and classified as one of the EU critical material) or artificial Artificial graphite is made from the pyrolysis at more than 2500°C of carbon precursor (usually from fossil fuels).
Some SiOx activie material are commercialized with energy capacities higher than graphite only material but their concentration in anode is limitated.(1)
(1): M. Miyachi, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawai, T. Ohta and M. Shirakata, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2005, 152, A2089. J. H. Kim, C. M. Park, H. Kim, Y. J. Kim and H. J. Sohn, J.Electroanal. Chem., 2011, 661, 245
A. Yamano, M. Morishita, M. Yanagida and T. Sakai, J.Electrochem. Soc., 2015, 162, A1730.